Producer input prices rose by 3.9% in the year to April 2023, down from 7.3% in the year to March 2023.
Producer output (factory gate) prices rose by 5.4% in the year to April 2023, down from 8.5% in the year to March 2023.
Inputs of metals and non-metallic minerals, and petroleum products provided the largest downward contributions to the change in the annual rates of input and output inflation, respectively.
While annual producer price inflation rates have been slowing in recent months, the index levels for both input and output prices have been broadly stable since June 2022.
On a monthly basis, producer input prices fell by 0.3% while output prices showed no movement in aggregate in April 2023.
The annual rate of the input Producer Price Index (PPI) has now been positive for 29 consecutive months, although it has been slowing for the last 10 months. The annual rate is now 20.5 percentage points below its record annual high of 24.4% in June 2022 (Figure 1).
The annual rate of the output PPI has now been positive for 28 consecutive months, but it has been slowing for the last nine months. It is down 14.3 percentage points from its recent peak of 19.7% in July 2022.
The index levels for both input and output prices have been broadly stable since June 2022 after a period of rapid increase starting in 2021 and continuing into early 2022 (Figure 2). This levelling out, when compared with the rapid increases seen last year, has the effect of creating a fall in the annual inflation rate (Figure 1), as explained in our Beware base effects blog.
Nôl i'r tabl cynnwys
The annual inflation rate of producer input prices decreased by 3.4 percentage points from 7.3% in March 2023 to 3.9% in April 2023, the lowest annual rate since February 2021 (see our Producer price inflation records dataset).
The monthly producer input inflation decreased by 0.3% in April 2023, following an increase of 0.2% in March 2023 (Table 1). This is notably down from the record monthly increase of 5.1% in March 2022 (see our Growth rates of output and input producer price inflation dataset) as a result of the conflict in Ukraine and the immediate impact this had on crude oil prices.
|All materials and fuels purchased (GHIP)|
|PPI Index (2015=100)||Monthly rate||Annual rate||Change in the annual rate |
Download this table Table 1: Input prices, index values, inflation rates and percentage point change to the annual inflation rate, UK, April 2022 to April 2023.xls .csv
The largest upward contribution to the annual input inflation rate in April 2023 came from inputs of other parts and equipment, which contributed 2.15 percentage points (Figure 3). This product group saw an increase in the year to April 2023 of 6.6% (Table 2), which is down 1.9 percentage points from March 2023. This was mainly driven by domestic inputs of air and spacecraft and related machinery.
The second-largest contributor to the annual rate came from inputs of domestic food, which contributed 1.17 percentage points (Figure 3). This product group saw an increase in the year to April 2023 of 9.4%, down from 15.3% in March 2023. This month the main driver was processed and preserved meat for the domestic market.
The Energy Price Guarantee and Energy Bill Relief Scheme (EBRS) came to an end on 31 March 2023 and was superseded by the Energy Bills Discount Scheme (EBDS). As indicated in our Classification review of the Energy Bills Discount Scheme statement, the data relating to the inputs of fuel now reflect the impact of the EBDS.
|Percentage change||Percentage change|
|March 2023||April 2023|
|Product group||Monthly rate||Annual rate||Monthly rate||Annual rate|
|Beverages & tobacco||1.3||15.4||-0.1||15.2|
|Fuel excluding Climate Change Levy||1.8||49.1||-0.4||27.3|
|Home-produced food materials||0.8||15.3||-0.1||9.4|
|Imported food materials||0.8||29.0||0.5||23.4|
|Other produced materials||-0.5||4.5||-0.6||-0.3|
|Metals & non-metallic minerals||0.2||6.2||0.0||1.3|
|Other parts and equipment||0.0||8.5||-0.3||6.6|
Download this table Table 2: Input prices, inflation rates, UK, March and April 2023.xls .csv
Of the 10 product groups, 8 showed downward contributions to the change in the annual inflation rate, with metals and non-metallic minerals providing the largest, at 1.10 percentage points (Figure 4). Metals and non-metallic minerals saw no movement between March 2023 and April 2023, compared with a monthly increase of 4.9% in April 2022.
In April 2023, crude oil was the only product group providing an upwards contribution to the change in the annual inflation rate of input Producer Price Index (PPI). Prices fell 17.7% in the year to April 2023, up from a 26.5% decrease in the year to March 2023. Crude oil prices increased 1.0% between March 2023 and April 2023, compared with a monthly decrease of 9.8% in the same period a year ago.
Input prices of imported materials and fuels decreased by 0.5% in April 2023, up from a decrease of 0.6% in March 2023. The annual rate was 5.7% in April 2023, down from 8.5% in March 2023 and 18.7 percentage points lower than its peak of 24.4% in September and October 2022 (Table 3).
|Imported materials and fuels purchased (GD74)||Sterling effective exchange rate |
- month average (BK67)
|PPI Index |
|Change in |
Download this table Table 3: Imported materials and fuels purchased and sterling effective exchange rate, index values, inflation rates and percentage point change to the annual inflation rate, UK, April 2022 to April 2023.xls .csv
The annual inflation rate of producer output (factory gate) prices decreased by 3.1 percentage points from 8.5% in March 2023 to 5.4% in April 2023, the lowest annual rate since July 2021.
For the second month in a row, the monthly producer output inflation was broadly flat (Table 4), although there were offsetting price changes within component product groups. This was notably lower than the monthly rate of 3.1% seen in March 2022 caused by the conflict in Ukraine affecting petrol prices.
|All manufactured products (GB7S)|
|Change in the |
Download this table Table 4: Output prices, index values, inflation rates and percentage point change to the annual inflation rate, UK, April 2022 to April 2023.xls .csv
Food products provided the largest upward contribution to the output annual inflation rate in the year to April 2023, at 3.16 percentage points (Figure 5). This was mainly driven by condiments and seasonings as well as fresh bread, pastry goods and other bakers' wares, with ingredients and energy costs pushing prices up. The annual inflation rate for food products was 14.0% in the year to April 2023 (Table 5), which is down from 15.5% in March 2023.
The second-largest contributor to the annual rate came from other manufactured products, which contributed 2.08 percentage points (Figure 5) and showed an increase of 8.9% in the year to April 2023. This is down from 10.2% in March 2023. The annual increase was mainly driven by articles of concrete, cement and plaster.
|Percentage change||Percentage change|
|March 2023||April 2023|
|Tobacco and alcohol (excl. duty)||2.0||18.0||-0.6||17.4|
|Clothing, textile and leather||1.4||9.2||0.8||9.7|
|Paper and printing||-0.1||10.7||-0.8||7.4|
|Petroleum products (excl. duty)||-4.2||-11.6||-3.6||-23.8|
|Chemical and pharmaceutical||0.4||7.3||-1.8||3.2|
|Metal, machinery and equipment||0.3||9.3||0.4||5.9|
|Computer, electrical and optical||0.4||7.7||0.4||6.5|
|Other manufactured products||0.4||10.2||0.6||8.9|
Download this table Table 5: Output prices, inflation rates, UK, March and April 2023.xls .csv
Of the 10 product groups, 9 showed downward contributions to the change in the annual inflation rate, with petroleum products providing the largest, at 1.21 percentage points (Figure 6). Petroleum products saw a monthly decrease of 3.6% in price in April 2023, compared with an increase of 12.0% in April 2022.
Nôl i'r tabl cynnwys
Producer price inflation time series
Dataset | Released 24 May 2023
A comprehensive selection of data on input and output indices. Contains producer price indices of materials and fuels purchased and output of manufacturing industry by broad sector.
Input and output producer price inflation: contributions to the annual rates
Dataset | Released 24 May 2023
Contributions to the annual inflation rates of input and output producer price inflation by component and overall inflation rates.
Producer price inflation
Dataset MM22 | Released 24 May 2023
UK price movement data at all manufacturing, aggregated industry and product group levels. Data supplied from individual manufacturers, importers and exporters. Monthly, quarterly and annual data.
This is the importance of the price of interest relative to other prices collected. With annual chain-linking, this is updated every year using business turnover data.
Price level in a specific basket of goods.
Annual growth rate
The annual inflation rate.
A smoothing factor applied to create a continuous series following a weights change.
A measure of influence that the index has on the overall growth rate. This depends on both the magnitude of the weight and the inflation rate. A positive contribution is an index that is driving a change in the annual growth rate value. Where the contribution is positive but the growth is negative, this indicates that the index is reducing the annual growth rate (for example, the growth rate would be higher if this index had a lower weight).
Producer price inflation
Changes in the prices of goods bought and sold by UK manufacturers, including price indices of materials and fuels purchased (input prices) and factory gate prices (output prices).
The input price measures the price of materials and fuels bought by UK manufacturers for processing. It includes materials and fuels that are both imported or sourced within the domestic market. It is not limited to materials used in the final product but includes what is required by businesses in their normal day-to-day running, such as fuels.
The factory gate price (output price) is the amount received by UK producers for the goods that they sell to the domestic market. It includes the margin that businesses make on goods, in addition to costs such as labour, raw materials and energy, as well as interest on loans, site or building maintenance, or rent.
Services producer price inflation
Quarterly estimates monitoring the changes in prices charged for services provided to UK-based customers for a range of industries.Nôl i'r tabl cynnwys
The Producer Price Index (PPI) uses contributions to identify how indices influence the overall inflation rate. This section gives additional information on the calculation and how to interpret it.
The following gives examples of how weight and inflation rate changes most commonly affect the contribution. In PPI, the weights usually have greater influence on the contribution as these tend to show greater change than the annual inflation rate:
decrease in weight and in inflation rate -- contribution is negative
decrease in weight, increase in inflation rate -- contribution is usually negative
no change in weight or inflation rate -- no change
no change in weight, increase in inflation rate -- contribution is usually positive
increase in weight, decrease in inflation rate -- contribution is usually positive
increase in weight, no change in inflation rate -- contribution is positive
increase in weight, increase in inflation rate -- contribution is positive
Contributions are calculated using the following formula:
Quality and methodology information (QMI) on strengths, limitations, appropriate uses, and how the data were created is available in our Producer price indices QMI report and our Services Producer Price Inflation QMI report.
Other useful documentation for the PPI and the Services Producer Price Index (SPPI) are:
Sterling effective exchange rate
The sterling effective exchange rate measures changes in the strength of sterling relative to baskets of other currencies. The sterling effective exchange rate is only indicative of the rates applied to producer prices. This is because the sterling effective exchange rate is a trade-weighted index that represents all UK trade, whereas producer prices reflect transactions in the manufacturing sector.
Data revisions policy
Figures for the latest two months are provisional, and the latest 12 months are subject to revisions in light of late and revised respondent data. The PPI revision policy is now in line with that of the national accounts. Published information on the revisions policy and revisions triangles shows how estimates are revised over time.Nôl i'r tabl cynnwys
provide users with valuable insight into the changes in the prices of goods and services bought and sold by UK manufacturers
are comprehensive, covering many products at a much greater level of detail than other surveys
are internationally comparable with any country using the classification by product activity (CPA) or the central product classification (CPC) systems -- the classification structure is available to review on the Eurostat website
are created using a rotational sampling method to enable many new products and new respondents to be included
are chain-linked annually to improve results in deflation by reducing substitution bias
The limitations are that:
some products are produced by only a small number of manufacturers, meaning that there may not be enough manufacturers for a detailed and robust analysis, and the sector may be volatile, requiring some estimation
the data can be revised for 12 months
the data for the latest two months of the Producer Price Index (PPI) and two quarters of the Services Producer Price Index (SPPI) are provisional
Response rates in April 2023
The response rate for the domestic PPI and Import Price Index (IPI) show an increase between March and April 2023, whereas the response rate for the Export Price Index (EPI) shows a slight decrease for the same period (Table 6).
Download this table Table 6: Producer Price Index (PPI), Import Price Index (IPI), and Export Price Index (EPI) overall effective response rates at time of first publishing.xls .csv
Manylion cyswllt ar gyfer y Bwletin ystadegol
Ffôn: +44 1633 456907