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Antibodies against coronavirus (COVID-19)


The presence of antibodies against SARS-CoV-2 suggests that a person has previously been infected with COVID-19 or vaccinated. In the week beginning 11 July 2022, the percentages of adults estimated to have antibodies at or above a 179 nanograms per millilitre (ng/ml) level were:

  • 96.3% in England 

  • 96.1% in Wales 

  • 95.5% in Northern Ireland 

  • 95.9% in Scotland

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Antibodies

Antibody levels remained high in adults across the UK

In the UK, the proportion of adults with antibodies at or above the 179ng/ml level remains high. An estimated 96.3% of the adult population in England, 96.1% in Wales, 95.5% in Northern Ireland and 95.9% in Scotland had antibodies against SARS-CoV-2 at or above the 179ng/ml level in the most recent week (beginning 11 July 2022).

At or above the higher level of 800ng/ml, an estimated 71.9% of the adult population in England, 71.7% in Wales, 71.0% in Northern Ireland and 72.3% in Scotland had antibodies against SARS-CoV-2. Antibody levels at or above 800ng/ml vary by age group and are highest in those aged 75 years and over, corresponding to the rollout of fourth vaccinations for these age groups. These estimates at or above the 800ng/ml level are not comparable with our estimates published on 4 May 2022 because of method changes since this publication. Details of method changes can be found in the Coronavirus (COVID-19) Infection Survey: antibody bulletin.

In Great Britain, an estimated 90.9% of children aged 12 to 15 years, and 73.1% of children aged 8 to 11 years, had antibodies against SARS-CoV-2 at or above the 179ng/ml level.

Testing negative means that an individual did not have enough antibodies to be detected in the test, not that they do not have any immune protection against the virus. Please read our Antibodies and Immunity blog for more information. See our more information page to read about antibody levels.

Last updated: 10/08/2022

Find out more in our Coronavirus (COVID-19) Infection Survey: antibody dataset

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Antibodies in school pupils

An estimated 99.3% of secondary school pupils and 82.0% of primary school pupils, in England, had antibodies against COVID-19 in March 2022 (Round 3). This is significantly higher than in January to February 2022 (Round 2) for both secondary (96.6%) and primary (62.4%) school pupils. Antibody levels in Round 2 were significantly higher than those in Round 1 (November to December 2021) for both secondary (82.4%) and primary (40.1%) school pupils.

The proportion of pupils testing positive for antibodies steadily increased by age. Over three-quarters of pupils aged 4 to 7 years (78%), around 9 in 10 pupils aged 8 to 11 years (89.5%) and nearly all secondary school-aged pupils (12 to 15 years) tested positive for antibodies.

Antibody testing in Round 3 took place while COVID-19 cases in England were increasing, especially among school aged children, because of the Omicron variant. The increase between Round 2 and Round 3 is likely to be driven by both natural infection and the continuing vaccination programme.

Last updated: 27/06/2022

Read more about this in our COVID-19 Schools Infection Survey, England: Pupil antibody data, March 2022 bulletin

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In March 2022, in England, more than 99% of secondary school pupils had antibodies to COVID-19. Of those, nearly three-quarters (73%) were vaccinated and just over one-quarter (27%) were unvaccinated. Of the 82.0% of primary school pupils who tested positive for antibodies, almost all (99.4%) were unvaccinated. You can read more about vaccinations in young people on our Vaccines page.

Last updated: 27/06/2022

Read more about this in our COVID-19 Schools Infection Survey, England: Pupil antibody data, March 2022 bulletin

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Further information


The Coronavirus (COVID-19) Infection Survey (CIS) estimates antibody positivity based on blood test results taken from a randomly selected subsample of individuals aged 16 years and over in England, Wales, Northern Ireland and Scotland. The REACT-2 study tests randomly selected participants aged 18 years and over from the NHS patient list in England, who self-administer a lateral flow immunoassay (LFIA) finger prick test to detect antibodies against SARS-CoV-2. The UK Health Security Agency publishes antibody positivity based on testing samples from healthy adult blood donors aged 17 years and older, supplied by NHS Blood and Transplant (NHS BT) as part of the UKHSA sero-surveillance programme. Antibody data from CIS, REACT-2 and UKHSA, that is presented on our tool includes antibodies from both infections and vaccinations.

The Coronavirus Schools Infection Survey estimates the percentage of staff and pupils with antibodies against SARS-CoV-2. Staff are tested from blood and pupils from oral-fluid samples using assays that detect antibodies from a previous infection, but not from vaccination.

To find out more about antibody data from different sources visit our more information page.

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Latest insights team
infection.survey.analysis@ons.gov.uk