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COVID-19 mortality rates lowest for those with three vaccinations

6 July 2022

Risk of death involving COVID-19 in England has been consistently lower for people who had a third vaccine dose or booster at least 21 days ago, compared with unvaccinated people and those with only a first or second dose.

Before March 2022, people who had received a second vaccine dose but not a third dose had a higher risk of death involving COVID-19 if their second vaccine dose was over six months ago than if they had their second dose less than six months ago. This indicated possible waning protection from vaccination over time.

Between March and May 2022, risk of death involving COVID-19 was similar for those who had received only a first or second dose and unvaccinated people, also indicating possible waning. However, there is more uncertainty around these estimates because of smaller populations.

While these rates are adjusted for age, they are not the same as vaccine effectiveness. Vaccinated and unvaccinated people likely differ in characteristics other than age, such as health.

Some deaths are expected in vaccinated people as the number who are vaccinated is high and no vaccine is 100% effective.

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Drop in self-employment during coronavirus pandemic

6 July 2022

A sharp fall in self-employment in the UK during the coronavirus (COVID-19) pandemic has been largely driven by people flowing out of this labour market status to become employees.

Between October and December 2021, there were 4.2 million people in self-employment in the UK, down from 5.0 million during the same period in 2019. This represented 12.9% and 15.3% of total employment respectively.

Among those moving from self-employed to employee status, more people reclassified their employment status without changing their job than those who moved and changed their job. This was most common among business directors and partners, and those in high-skilled occupations.

There were large increases in people reclassifying from self-employed to employee between April and September 2020, coinciding with the start of the furlough scheme.

The construction industry has the largest number of self-employed workers, with 914,000 working in this sector during January to March 2020. This fell by 16.3% to 765,000 in the same quarter of 2021 (most of which was during the third national lockdown) but numbers increased to 799,000 in January to March 2022.

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Deaths involving COVID-19 increased in the UK

5 July 2022

In the UK, there were 346 deaths involving COVID-19 registered in the week ending 24 June 2022, an increase from 309 in the previous week. This accounted for 2.8% of all deaths in the latest week; an increase from 2.5% in the previous week.

There were 12,278 total deaths registered in the UK in the latest week, which is 15.9% above the five-year average.

In England, the number of deaths involving COVID-19 increased from 246 in the previous week to 270 in the latest week (ending 24 June 2022).

Deaths involving COVID-19 increased in groups aged 55 years and over and decreased in those aged 45 to 54 years. Deaths remained similar in groups aged under 45 years. The number of deaths involving COVID-19 increased in five out of nine English regions.

Our data are based on deaths registered in England and Wales and include all deaths where “novel coronavirus (COVID-19)” was mentioned on the death certificate. More information is available in our weekly figures by local authority and health board.

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Increase in positive COVID tests continues

1 July 2022

The percentage of people testing positive for coronavirus (COVID-19) continued to increase across the UK in the week ending 24 June 2022.

The increases are likely to be caused by increases in infections compatible with Omicron variants BA.4 and BA.5.

The estimated number of people in the community population testing positive was:

  • 1,829,100 (1 in 30 people) in England

  • 106,000 (1 in 30 people) in Wales

  • 71,000 (1 in 25 people) in Northern Ireland

  • 288,200 (1 in 18 people) in Scotland

The percentage of people testing positive for coronavirus (COVID-19) continued to increase across the UK in the week ending 24 June 2022

Estimated percentage of the population testing positive for COVID on nose and throat swabs, 27 June 2021 to 24 June 2022

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Source: Office for National Statistics – Coronavirus (COVID-19) Infection Survey

Download data on COVID-19 infections across the UK (XLSX, 45 KB)

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COVID-19 death rate highest in London in 2021

1 July 2022

With 153.1 deaths per 100,000 people in 2021, London had the highest age-standardised mortality rate (ASMR) for deaths due to coronavirus (COVID-19) across the English regions and Wales.

The South West of England had the lowest ASMR, at 69.4 deaths per 100,000 people (4,692 deaths), statistically significantly lower than any other region.

There were 67,350 deaths due to COVID-19 in England and Wales in 2021 (11.5% of all deaths). In Wales, the ASMR was 106.6 deaths per 100,000 people, statistically significantly lower than in England where the rate was 114.0 deaths per 100,000 people.

Diabetes was the most common pre-existing condition mentioned on death certificates, among deaths due to COVID-19. Of these 14,159 deaths, 82.1% were aged 65 years and over. With 12,911 deaths, the second most common pre-existing condition was hypertensive diseases.

Of all deaths due to COVID-19 in England and Wales in 2021, 14.2% had no pre-existing conditions mentioned on the death certificate.

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Antibodies against the coronavirus (COVID-19) remained high across UK

29 June 2022

A high percentage of adults in the UK were estimated to have coronavirus (COVID-19) antibodies at or above 179 ng/ml in the week beginning 30 May 2022.

The Coronavirus (COVID-19) Infection Survey showed the proportion of adults in each of the four UK countries with antibodies against SARS-CoV-2 (the virus that causes COVID-19).

In the week beginning 30 May 2022, the percentage of people estimated to have antibodies against SARS-CoV-2 (the virus that causes COVID-19) at or above the antibody level of 179 ng per millilitre (ng/ml):

• 97.6% in England

• 97.4% in Wales

• 97.7% in Northern Ireland

• 97.2% in Scotland

In the same time period, in Great Britain (England, Wales and Scotland), it was an estimated 95.5% for those aged 12 to 15 years.

The percentage of the population estimated to have antibodies against SARS-CoV-2 was high for children in Great Britain, in the week beginning 30 May 2022

Modelled percentage of the adult population with levels of antibodies against SARS-CoV-2 at or above 179 nanograms per millilitre (ng/ml), by age group, UK countries, 7 December 2020 to 5 June 2022

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Data for the percentage of population estimated to have antibodies,(32KB)

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User requests

We continue to respond to data requests from the public, media and government during the coronavirus (COVID-19) pandemic. Responses are published in our list of user requested data.

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View all data used in this article


  • Deaths registered weekly in England and Wales, provisional

    Provisional counts of the number of deaths registered in England and Wales, including deaths involving coronavirus (COVID-19), in the latest weeks for which data are available.

  • Coronavirus and the social impacts on Great Britain

    Indicators from the Opinions and Lifestyle Survey (covering 16 to 27 March 2022) of the impact of the coronavirus (COVID-19) pandemic on people, households and communities in Great Britain.

  • Coronavirus and the latest indicators for the UK economy and society

    This page has been superseded by the Economic activity and social change in the UK, real-time indicators page (see link in Notices) . This will be the new title and location of the bulletin presenting the real-time indicators of economic activity and social change, for 13 May 2021 and future releases.

  • Coronavirus (COVID-19) Infection Survey, UK

    Percentage of people testing positive for coronavirus (COVID-19) in private residential households in England, Wales, Northern Ireland and Scotland, including regional and age breakdowns.