1. Built-up Area/Built-up Area Sub-division

BUAs and BUASDs are a new geography, created as part of the 2011 Census outputs.

This data provides information on the villages, towns and cities where people live, and allows comparisons between people living in built-up areas and those living elsewhere. Census data for these areas (previously called urban areas) has been produced every 10 years since 1981.

A new methodology to capture the areas was used in the 2011 version, but it still follows the rules used in previous versions so that results are broadly comparable. As before, the definition follows a “bricks and mortar” approach, with BUAs defined as land with a minimum area of 20 hectares (200,000 square metres), while settlements within 200 metres of each other are linked.

The BUAs and BUASDs are available as boundary sets, name and codes and lookup files, which can be downloaded from the Open Geography portal.

You will need to be aware that there are areas included in the boundary datasets but not in the Census tables. These BUAs and BUASDs have been identified as areas that have not been allocated a population. In most cases, this is because they do not have any residential buildings – for example, industrial estates, airports, theme parks, etc. There are 337 BUAs where population has not been allocated (305 in England and 32 in Wales) and 133 BUASDs where population has not been allocated (123 in England and 10 in Wales). The names and codes of these areas have been included in documentation that accompanies the files.

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2. Local Education Authority (LEA) / Education and Library Board

Prior to 1 April 2009, Local Education Authorities (LEA) were the bodies responsible for the local administration of state sector education services in England and Wales.

In those parts of England that still had counties, there was one LEA for each county, for example the Cumbria LEA and the Devon LEA.

Otherwise there was one LEA in each unitary authority, metropolitan district or London borough. The Isles of Scilly also had their own LEA.

The statutory duties of LEAs are now undertaken by the director of Children's Services within each local authority district (LAD). The director’s responsibilities also include Children's Social Services (CSS).

The Children Act 2004 required every London borough, metropolitan district, top-tier local authority (county) or unitary authority in England to appoint a director of children's services.

Additionally the Education and Inspections Act 2006 includes a clause that allows for the future renaming of LEAs as local authorities in all legislation, removing the anomaly of one LAD being known as a LAD, an LEA and a children's services authority.

Following on from this legislation, during the last round of local government restructuring the then-current Department for Children, Schools and Families (DCSF) reviewed the alignment of LEA and CSS codes. The outcome of the review was that CSS codes were replaced by LEA codes (with effect from 1 April 2009).

Although LEAs no longer exist, the coding structure has been retained by the DCSF, which became the Department for Education (DfE) on 12 May 2010. For more information, please contact DfE directly.

In Northern Ireland, local education is the responsibility of five education and library boards (Belfast, North Eastern, South Eastern, Southern and Western), which each cover one or more complete district council areas.

In Scotland education administration is the responsibility of local government (that is, the councils in each council area).

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3. National Parks

National parks are designated to conserve the natural beauty and cultural heritage of areas of outstanding landscape value, and also to promote opportunities for public understanding and enjoyment of their special qualities.

Although they are also subject to the usual structure of local government, each one has its own National Park Authority (NPA) with responsibility for conservation, planning, recreation management and fostering the social and economic wellbeing of local communities.

The Broads is not a national park designation, but is included in our products and statistics as it is widely considered to be part of the national parks family.

The Broads has its own special authority, the Broads Authority, which is similar to the NPAs but with extra powers in relation to navigation.

There are currently 13 national parks in England and Wales, including the Broads.

Ten were designated in the 1950s following the National Parks and Access to the Countryside Act 1949, the Broads was created in 1989, and the New Forest in 2005.

The South Downs National Park became fully operational in April 2011, which also included becoming the statutory Planning and Access Authority.

In Scotland the National Parks (Scotland) Act was passed in July 2000.

The first Scottish National Park, Loch Lomond and the Trossachs, was established in July 2002, and the Cairngorms National Park was established in March 2003.

The Parks cover about 10 per cent of total land area of England and Wales, 9 per cent of England and 20 per cent of Wales.

They attract around 100 million visitors a year.

The two Scottish national parks cover 7 per cent of the land area of Scotland.

Northern Ireland has no national parks at present.

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4. Training and Enterprise Council (TEC) / Local Enterprise Company (LEC) / Enterprise Region (ER)

Training and enterprise councils (TEC), which existed across England and Wales, were government-funded bodies that aimed to foster local economic growth and development and to encourage investment.

They helped businesses set up, grow and evolve; provided training and support for the unemployed; and funded vocational qualifications.

They also tried to co-ordinate educational provision to the future needs of local industry.

In April 2001, however, the 72 English and four Welsh TECs were disbanded.

A large part of their remit was transferred to local learning and skills councils (LLSC) in England and to the regional offices of Education and Learning Wales (ELWa) in Wales.

In April 2007 the ELWa regions were replaced by the department for children, education, lifelong learning and skills (DCELLS).

On 31 March 2010 the LLSCs were abolished in England and as yet have no replacement.

In Scotland, the equivalent of TECs were local enterprise companies (LEC), but these were abolished in September 2007 and replaced with Enterprise Regions (ER). ERs are government-funded bodies that aim to foster local economic growth and development in Scotland.

There are six ERs and these cover the whole of Scotland.

No similar bodies exist in Northern Ireland.

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5. Local Learning and Skills Council (LLSC) / Education and Learning Wales (ELWa) / Department for Children, Education, Lifelong Learning and Skills (DCELLS)

In April 2001, the learning and skills council (LSC) was responsible for funding and planning post-16 education and training in England; the equivalent bodies in Wales being the education and learning Wales (ELWa) regions.

These organisations were established as a replacement for the training and enterprise councils (TEC) (although they also took on other responsibilities), and their aim was to increase the standards and range of learning opportunities for businesses, communities and individuals.

The LSC had 47 local offices, known as local learning skills councils (LLSCs); the ELWa regions had four regional offices.

LLSCs were based on local authority district (LAD) boundaries. In practice this resulted in a variety of constitutions, including single counties; county/unitary authority groupings; and groupings of either unitary authorities, metropolitan districts or London boroughs.

The ELWa regions had the same boundaries as the former TECs; they matched the National Assembly economic regions (NAER).

In April 2007 the Department for children, education, lifelong learning and skills (DCELLS) replaced the ELWa regions.

The department aims to improve children’s services, education and training provision to secure better outcomes for learners, businesses and employers, as set out in its strategic document ‘The Learning Country’.

It helps empower children, young people and adults through education and training to enjoy a better quality of life.

On 31 March 2010 the LLSCs were abolished in England. Currently there are no replacements for the LLSCs.

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6. Registration Districts

These are the areas for which records of births, deaths and marriages are kept. A new list is produced annually but occasional changes can occur throughout the year.

Currently there are 173 registration districts in England and Wales (151 in England and 22 in Wales), as at 31st December 2019.

Registration district names and codes and boundaries are available to download free of charge from the Open Geography portal.

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